If you don't want to go the 1911 route then a Glock is probably going to be your best bet. You should be able to poke around and find a police trade at a pawn shop or somewhere for around $350 or less. Don't be shy of a police trade in, they don't get shot all that much. USPSA shooters routinely fire 40-50k through their Glocks with little maintenance. My wife shoots one in competition and she has at least a good 15k through hers, no problem.
If you end up looking at a 1911, I would suggest staying with a .45 as .40 in a 1911 can be quite finicky. If you do go .40, be prepared to get some work done on it. Also if you go .40, take a look at STI, they make the best out of the box .40’s. Buy some 10mm singlestack mags and be ready to send it in to someone like Virgil Tripp to get it running.
I have a 1911 with a .22 conversion, it works very well and is a lot of fun to shoot. It only takes a minute or so to convert. The conversion (Kimber) is very, very accurate out to 50 yards. I can routinely hit 4” plates at 50 yards with it.