Bullets are designed to destroy. How much destruction involves velocity at impact, bullet construction, and target.

I once jump-shot a pheasant with an ounce and a quarter of #6. I'm sure every pellet hit the cock because there was just enough left of it to throw it away. What a waste. I was a young pheasant hunter. Had I been wise I would have used an once and an eighth and would have allowed distance between bird and me before firing. It was a costly education.